Media, Audience & Place – It's all in my head

Journalism in the current present

In this week’s class, we were taught about the dimension aspects of journalism in today’s time. How journalism back then was as simple as a few people gathering around a small transmitter radio, listening intently for what the speaker is omitting. In contrast to now, which the rise of the media evolution is providing the opportunities and freedom of extracting news via the internet. This evolution has changed the course of history, of how a news or story is being represented and told to the entire populous. Regardless of the phenomenon changed by the media evolution, “journalism itself doesn’t dies but journalism is in fact a history on a run” as quoted by Thomas Griffith, a US broadcaster. This simply means that journalism is a form of human rights that can never dies and be silent into history. (Gilmor 2004)

Moving on, let’s look deeply into what the core purpose of journalism is. In our modern society, journalism acts as a transparent role in providing citizens with the information they need to be free and self-governing.( Berger 2003) This is inferred by saying that journalism is a platform of creating and distributing information to the public that is sought out to be heard or not. Journalism has a role to maintain and be enforced by professional a set of routines that are said to guarantee the quality and neutrality of institutional journalism in the eyes of public, in the long run. (Domingo et al 2008)

This goes by saying; journalism today poses a significance difference as compared to back then, due to the emergence of the media revolution that has changed a fact in history on how news and stories today are being told. Back then, news and stories were told through traditional medium such as newspaper publications and televisions where people felt comfortable and trustworthy enough to extract information from these media centres. Then comes the age of convergence where people are starting to move from the traditional phase to accepting a whole new media platform such as the internet. (Berger 2003) Hence, there’s a shift in the consumer culture (where people used to only receive information) to the prosumer culture (where people not only received information but create information to be disseminated out). Evidently, more and more freelance journalists and independent journalistic organizations are emerging in the public to participate in this news media by creating user generated content that is publicized through channels such as Youtube, blogs, Facebook and etc. (Manovich 2009)

It is no longer about reading a crisis on the front page of a newspaper or television as we have shifted to the real time web, and the news itself has shifted along with it.  Just like how we do not find out about a plane crash on CNN. We find out due to the news and stories that goes viral on the web where people tweet, shoot videos, share their thoughts and viewpoints that is publish through the internet. Information doesn’t just travel fast but it is happening in real time. Interestingly enough, I think this is just the beginning of the golden age of journalistic writing. I can’t help but to wonder how the future of journalism would be like.



Berger, L 2003, ‘Shielding the Unmedia: Using the Process of Journalism to Protect the Journalist’s Privilege in an Infinite Universe of Publication’, university of Nevada school of law, pp1374-1383, accessed at 9/4/2014,

Domingo, D, Thorsten, Q, Heinonen, A, Paulussen, S, Singer, J, Vujnovic, M 2008, ‘Participatory Journalism Practices in the Media and Beyond An international comparative study of initiatives in online newspapers’, vol 2, no 3, pp327-331, accessed at 9/4/2014,

Gilmor, D 2004, We the Media: Grassroots Journalism by the People, for the People, O’Reilly Media Inc, Gravenstein Highway North, Sebastopol, accessed 9/4/2014,

Malnovich, L 2009, ‘The Practice of Everyday (Media) Life: From Mass Consumption to Mass Cultural Production’, the university of Chicago press, vol 35, no 2, pp319-331, accessed 9/4/2014,


Mobile phones in the context of a public space

             In today’s lecture, we were given the task to write about people’s behaviour in a public context in relation to using mobile phone. In this task we were supposed to observe and analyse people’s behaviour when they encountered or engaged with their mobile phone in a public space.

             Somehow, what really grabs my attention in terms of showing a significance behaviour when it comes to people engaging with their mobile phone has to be in the cinema entrance where the are many sizes of media screens were placed near the ticketing counter to display show times and movie trailers. During this encounter when I was observing these people starring at the media screen in front them, I noticed a fair amount of interesting behaviours portrayed by them when absorbing information from the screen while using their phones.

               For example, I saw a group of friends standing in front of what looks like a media screen displaying the show times of different movies, but only 2 out of 5 of them were staring intently at the screen. The remaining 3 were busy chatting away with each other but occasionally paid a glance at the screen. In this context, it can only mean the 2 person who is staring intently at the screen is the key decision maker in deciding which movie to watch and what time. However, one of them was ‘content grazing’ which is defined as multitasking on two or more devices at one time which are known as the multitasking or distraction behaviour (Smith 2013). This particular person was starring at the media screen in front of him as well as starring into his smart phone to compare show times from another cinema outlet. He was multitasking with the 2 devices in front of him. His friend next to him, on the other hand, was holding his phone as well, and what he seemed he was doing was, researching on the ratings and reviews of each movie showing that particular time. This is known as the ‘investigative spider- webbing’ where consumers view related contend on two or more devices at the same time with an investigative intent to source for more information (Smith 2013). After further deliberation in today’s time, our mind is crafted in such a way that there is no possible ending in how a person source for and absorbing information. More often or not, we are often faced in various situations where we exposed ourselves to multiple screen environments to obtain specific information about something.





Smith, C 2013, Fresh research identifies four type of multi-screening behaviours, accessed 10/10/13,

Media Screens in Public Spaces


             The use of ‘public space’ in urban context today is a perfect example of the different kinds of materialization of the various unintended practices happening today. Given the context of public space, various forms of media channels such as electronic billboards and television advertisings are being installed inside shopping malls and public vehicles such as in buses and LRTs around us. It is only a matter of time until an individual stumbles upon this at least once in their lifetime.  Different individuals have their own perception in receiving, filtering and interpreting this medium based on their instinctual response. How I perceive this to be may be another’s person idea of a bad wrong doing.

              One of the most common scenario that I stumbled across upon is during my internship period where I have to take the LRT to work almost every single day for 6 months. During the midst of my journey to KLCC while, waiting on the platform for the LRT to arrive at my stop, there’s this fairly sized television that is placed in a strategic location nearby the platform for people to view. This electronic media plays different types of ads that I can vaguely recall. Each time while waiting for the LRT to arrive, more often or not I find myself standing near the TV simply because not for the reason why you thought it should be.  I find myself standing near a TV simply because I want to appear as if I’m so engrossed into what the television was playing to give out an impression that I’m occupied and that I’m in no mood to talk to strangers as it would appear that I’m busy. Another given reason was that, due to the reflective TV screens it allows me to keep checking my silhouette hair and attire to make sure it’s properly in place.

            However, there are certain times, the space in front of that TV was not solely occupied by me alone but there were a few others who would stand there being curious of the ads being played. By observing some of them, in spatial terms, there was this one office man who stands in front of the TV to talk on the phone in hoping others will not eavesdrop into his conversation due to the sound of the TV masking it a little. Besides that, there was also this one time when a rather old lady who was carrying a recycled bag who kept going back to the TV to simply check for the time to estimate when the LRT was arriving. I guess by looking at this spatial context many people are taking advantages of the uses of the Television not for the right reason but for the subliminal unintended practices that occurred.


My Interpretation of Copyright

In today’s time, the issue of piracy and copyright has been a long standing issue bombarding most nations. Piracy is deemed as the act of illegally downloading copyrighted games, music, movies, TV shows and software that you haven’t paid for. A large percentage of people who use the internet have at least download movies, music’s and software at least once in their life. With the internet being so easily convenient to access at any place or time, downloads are surprisingly easy to find on the internet, especially file sharing sites such as the Piratebay and Kickasstorrent that act as a portal to access to all movies, music, TV shows and games that are ready for downloading.

Although, the distinction between illegal downloading is fairly wrong and punishable, many of us, due to the ability of the internet, have been encouraged and even tempted into downloading all these entertainments without having to pay for it. Somehow illegal downloading, over the world, is an issue that many individuals take very lightly upon due to how different people have their benchmark of where they draw the line of the different interpretation of copyright between what is right and what is wrong.

Everybody have their own interpretation on how to go about the copyright issue of illegally downloading piracy entertainments. However, as for my take on piracy, as long as I’m downloading it only for the intentional purpose for my entertainment and not act as a source of distributing, there’s where I draw the fine line, it is deemed as nothing so illegal to brag about. Famous sort of entertainment I enjoy downloading the most is the TV shows that I watched. I watched an average of at least 7-10 different TV shows a week that most of these TV shows mostly airs in the US only and not in Malaysia. This has constitute to the major part of why the need to download them on a weekly basis. On top of that being an avid fan to these TV shows, I do not download them in one whole set when the season ended but rather I do it episode by episode because I’m always so excited to know what happen next or the fact that my dying impatience of the need to know what happen in each series.

However, when it comes to illegally downloading movies, more often or not, I much prefer watching them in the cinemas especially those big blockbusters movies such as Transformers, Iron man, Thor etc. The reason to this was mostly because due to the time immediacy of needing to watch these movies right away as soon as it premieres. As we all know, downloading blockbuster movies on torrent sites always comes out a month later after the movie premiere. The Quality, sound and movie effects plays a huge role in why I decide to watch certain movies such as Transformers and Avatar in the cinema to fully absorb the special effects of these movies. Besides that, when it comes to downloading music online, I’m not one of those conventional people that actually goes to an mp3 site such as mp3skull to download songs but rather I download these songs from YouTube using a YouTube converter site. Based on reasonable conviction is that it’s much more convenient to look for songs that I want on YouTube rather than in mp3 sites. All in all, the distinction of illegally downloading copyrighted entertainment has always deemed as not only unethical but if you’re caught doing so, it can be punishable. With this being said, different countries have different rules and regulation of the weight of the punishment for illegal downloading and some fine can goes up to $25,000 dollars.


Lysonki, S & Durvasula, S 2008, ‘Digital Piracy of MP3s: Consumer and Ethical Predisposition,’ Journal of Consumer Marketing, Volume 25, No. 3 (2008), accessed 5/10/2013,

FANDOM “One Tree Hill”

In today’s time, the entertainment industry has indeed taken a huge revolutionary step from the beetle’s era to the present day, called the one direction era. This has no doubt showed us the distinction of music then and now. Growing up in the digital age with entertainment subliminally bombarding us has allowed our minds to be influenced by something or someone. This is called the act of being in a fandom to a famous figure, band, or a brand and it is inevitable. I guess for me, I wouldn’t considered myself as a hardcore enthusiastic fandom but I do place emotions of admiring them and looking up to them in times of need.

 When I was around the age of 12 or 13, I was introduced to this television series called One Tree Hill. Although the name and the storyline of the show sounded simple and there’s nothing  much to brag about but I remembered when I first watched the 40 minutes drama, it mesmerizes me so much, I couldn’t stop watching it. Episode after episode I kept watching; the drama, the storyline and the character in the show has locked my attention and desire for it. I remembered how I used to stay up until late night jeopardizing my sleep just to watch the same episode over and over again.

I don’t know quite how to tell you why this simple TV series has managed to have such a huge impact and influenced over my teenage life. From a simple show about the lives of two half brothers who compete for a school’s basketball position has relatively involved something deeper and more impactful that I can somehow relate myself and my life to. Ever since then, whenever I’m loss in confusion, or I’m sad or angry or happy, the first thing I go to is watch One Tree Hill because it always makes everything better. Or perhaps, when I’m in doubt about something, I look to One Tree Hill as a source of hope and to never give up. This showed has taught me more than my 22 years of life has taught me about the simple nobility of life and good values such as faith, courage, kindness, integrity, and many more. Writing this alone cannot justify why this show has showed such a huge impact in my life ever since the loss of my friend. I guess we’re all need a little hope sometimes in life to know that life is okay in a good way.

I recalled the nights when I devote hours of my time to sketch out pictures from One Tree Hill because the pictures meant so much to me in relating to my own life, that when I finished sketching, I hang it up in my bedroom wall. Some of the pictures I drew after:




In conjunction to sketching, I also recalled my fandom traits in google-ing and jotting down the many famous quotes from One Tree Hill to this diary book of mine. Slowly by slowly this quotes appear on the wall of my bedroom, in my mobile phone as well as in my wallet where I carried it on a piece of note everywhere I go. Moreover, I also used to visit the One Tree Hill fan site where I used to placed comments of my thoughts of the show where others will response and we would shared similar or different views about the topic at hand. Famous one tree hill sites I used to visit:

All in all, I guess being a fandom has its both perks and downside especially in choosing what you want to worship to. I guess I’m glad in the sense that I was given an opportunity to have such an amazing show to look up to when I was young. 

Space affect the assumption of media effects on audiences.

                 Many would begin to think that media plays a very important role in our lives. We allow media to invade into our home, thoughts and mind that we are being put into this imaginary private bubble without realizing we are slowly segregating the world around us.  We live in this contiguous cycle that in the society we live in, there’s a set of public codes or policy about the relationship between us and the media that we are suppose to adhere to, much like the social structure. We learn what our social space environment is and respond to the knowledge we acquire, such as the order of importance and structure to the world we see whether fictionally or actuality. In the pre-modern media period, audiences were inherent in the media content. Therefore, time and space were still tied together. While in the post modern period, cyber media such as the internet and mobile communication has reshaped spatial and temporal boundaries. Historically a side of mental space such as print media creates imaginative space while television creates perceptual space and the internet creates mental space to the audience who builds a relationship with the media.

                Many media effects have prompted itself to the surface due to allowing media to invade and hold such a big influence in our perceptions and thoughts. While one of the most common media effects seen in today’s time is violence. Violence is everywhere and it comes from all media forms, whether it’s the internet, the television, video games etc. Such saying can be ignited when a child isolates themselves into their own private dimension of space to play video games. This allows the child to create their own private mental space with them engaging with the media solely causing media effects to occur. Studies have shown that children when exposed to violence becomes immune and numb to horror violence and imitating the violence they see, causing media effects such as aggression, vulgarity, obscenity and misconduct of social behaviour. This shows that space plays an important attributes in defining the individual relationship with the media. The media affects the way in which users experienced the spatial and temporal characteristics of daily social life. (Sanghee,K, & Do-Hyun, J)

                 Moreover, much to our liking, a cinema has always deemed as a private space to some and public space to others. So in the context of public space, certain code of behaviour may not be tolerable such as engaging in the act of sexual encounter in the cinemas while, in the context of private space, engaging in sexual encounter could be normal. Due to the collision of this 2 different distinction of perception to space, it creates many different social structures as to how one assigns an attribute of their own space meaning to it.



Sanghee, K & Do-Hyun, J, 2011, “Time and Space on Media Platforms”, Media ecology proceedings, vol 12, pp27-29.

Orlikowsky, W.J & Yates, J, 2002, “It’s about time: temporal structuring in organizations”, Organization Science, Vol. 13 pp.684-700.

How is Television watched today?


Many would agree to disagree that television today is watched in both public and private spaces. A good example of television being watched in a public space occasion is when a collective amount of people gather to view a common show of their interest, such as a football match. In respective to private spaces, people probably use televisions more in the days when shows and news were less accessible. With technological advances such as the internet, television are more likely be used in a public space event rather than in a private one. In reference to that, sources of television could be seen in public spaces such as community halls, through the watch of a shop window, somebody else’s home, or even out and about typical “Yum cha” places such as mamaks, cafés and etc. However, televisions could also be a found in private spaces such as in the comforts of our own homes that we commonly watch in between our domestic routines (a house wife ironing clothes while watching TV), reorganization of our domestic space (an own personal space to make you feel more comfortable at home), TV dinners (watching of TV during meals), and TV pajamas (accompaniment during sleepless night to keeps us awake).


In retrospect to the previous point of TV being utilized more for public events, people would generally watch TV together when there is a collective interest among the people in the group. Another possible context of which the following were to occur is when this group of people (the “we”) is facing a common circumstance. For example, when a family is gathering together prior to their dinner, a few of them may choose to switch on the TV for a quick source of immediate entertainment while waiting for the arrival of the other family members.


A number of factors would affect how one behaves when watching TV; whether they are in private or public space, the type of program/scene playing, or the people who are watching together. When a sex scene gets played on screen during a family movie night, you can expect that there will be some awkwardness in the environment as people will start to act as though they are too pre-occupied with something else other than the screen. The same scenario would have undergone differently if you were watching that scene with a spouse or partner instead. Subtle grins, flirty whispers and groping would more likely occur. In conjunction to private spaces, there is probably less codes of behavior that one has to adhere to. They could be watching TV in their undies if they choose to during their private space. However, there are some common codes of behavior when it comes to private spaces. The respective code of behavior would be influenced by the factors such as the event of which is undergoing ;are these people watching a football match together against a bunch of friends while fully engaging themselves in the current TV program. While watching a football match, the crowd would generally be more lively and loud; thrown in with occasional loud gasps during near miss goals. On the other hand, when a group of people come together to watch a movie they just rented, they may not necessarily want to engage in conversations as much. They may treat the whole process as if they are in a cinema whereby as a show of respect, you do not interrupt the other people’s attention towards the show.